New Media


Textual Analysis

What is the complete meaning of a text, and does it hold one essential meaning?

Text –A text is any object that can be read.

Text carry various meanings, the viewer will interpret it into his/her own point of view, not every individual will respond in the same way. E.g. Donald Trump ban on all Muslim people entering the U.S., He stepped in as new leadership and change for the better of the people ,but the viewers decoded it as unfair and unjust

This proves that one message might be sent but it’s not just one meaning that’s being understood, though the audience decodes into 3 categories, Dominant- Producers want their message to be understood and interpreted the way they have set out, Negotiated- A balance between dominant and opposition reading, Oppositional- The reader rejects the decoded message.     

Transcript of Stuart Hall Reception Theory (1980) ,Stuart Hall
Reception Theory (1980)

It’s safe to say background textual knowledge is necessary in the case of knowing who was responsible for creating the text and the intention behind as well as on screen, in this case e.g. Theme. “This is such a Steven Spielberg movie.” and one would have to know his work as a complete whole to understand a single text.

It is not visible to understand text in isolation, without more information regarding the topic and references to the outside world, e.g. Stereotypes in sitcoms that portray a message in 25min and usually the themes represent everyday life and give a sense of direction to how people should be. E.g. Modern Family

Though many are disadvantaged in the sense where the text is all they have, it is possible to make sense of text in isolation but in order to accomplish that knowledge of the world is required and textual processes e.g. The style, the type of image used.

Text in social situations imply two main platforms, space and time, space can influence texts meaning e.g. Different news channels, Media space is thee advertisement in the space of a magazine vs newspaper, Social space would be my home versus my lecture hall and other texts to just influence the reading of a text.

 “Intertextuality refers to the interconnection that occurs naturally or purposefully in works of art. It helps them create connections with their audience or to illustrate a large point they are trying to make by creating a parallel to other art their audience is already familiar with. Sometimes intertextuality slips in without the creator directly noticing. Lat us explore how the affects the music we listen to.”

e.g. The Simpsons


e.g. Carlos Santana- Maria and Rihanna ,DJ Khaled – wild thoughts is a clear example of a hit almost 7 years ago it seen recreated in 2017 with different vocals but the same melody, though the song has lost a lot of individualism now that it ‘seen recreated but still completely resembles the original.
In all truth it is necessary that we have two types of readers, the inscribed reader is an individual of the target market and the actual readers whom I believe the text were made for.



How media represents people.


What everyone is unaware of is the simple truth that no matter what we represent, it is a form of social construct where the media sets across points of view and while we contemplate it turns out to be quiet profitable.

I believe that in some cases woman are being portrayed as sex icons in the eyes of the media and there is clear statistical evidence in the link, though I see it in a light of not only disrespect but undermining the real capabilities of woman.



How media represents men is no different from the way they portray woman, How the media represents men Keith Richman , CEO of Break Media “the media has class men as big built , skirt chasers and inept at relationships and parenting”. .Nov 14, 2012 @ 03:14 PM Meghan Casserly , Forbes Staff
Entrepreneurship. By women, of women, for women.

The medias representation of gay man September-23-2011-21-53-45-ScreenShot20110923at6.jpg

How the media represents the media is not entirely true ,they classed gay men to be and act a certain way when in all honesty not every gay men might necessary follow ,we all have our own perception of reality and character that molds our personality I feel that’s a matter of choice , self will and consideration should apply to such a sensitive subject.

“…one apprehends reality only through representations of reality through texts, discourses, images; there is no such thing as unmediated* access to reality. But because one can see reality only through representation it does not follow that one does not see reality at all. Reality is always more extensive and complicated than any system of representation can possibly comprehend and we always sense that this is so” (Dyer, 1993:3).

Being only human means representation cant answer our sense of reality though we constantly search and strive to represent it in different lights, it is not objective and derives from bias of a particular individual  which forms to be subjective but always will be subject to power.


The perception against Black Men is really negative and it seems that is a staple on every one of their backs ,a really misguided stereotype

I feel like not every black men is a convict or inept of being a father figure or a family man, the reality is a figure of violence and resistnce, which is not completely true and for this reason is feel its misinterpreted. .









Main functions of the media

If i were to look at media as a metaphore it would be a mirror, like a window referes to the media broadning our horizones ,iv never been to Bazil but still movies and documentaries gives me an idea of w hat it is like there though the Mirror effect also allows distortion of this reflection obviously the picture the media potrays is not entirely Brazil but infact an incomplete and distorted image only showing us parts of that reality .

One of the main functions of the media is to entertain from 3 perspectives.

Rhetorical Perspective

Michael Novack states that there were 3 influences on any society and through social  media reflects political ,economical and moral culture influences in many ways, with the rise of technology the need has increased in forms of television, cell phones, internet, newspapers and radio.                                      Placeholder Image

Behavioral Perspective

The behavioral theory is a result of the interactions between an individual and there environment as well as observable and measurable behavior rather than mental or emotional behavior, Theorist such as Skinner used operate conditioning and Pavlov used classical conditioning using an example of the dog associates food with the bell he rang.

The cognitive theory is regarded as the bridge between classical behaviorism and other theory’s that emphasis behavior has much in common with behavioral theory which suggest our environment determines our behavior.             

Social Influence

Imitation is one of the most basic forms of social behavior begins with the understanding that there is a difference between others and ourselves. In 1977 Andrew Meltzhof questioned the theory that said understanding between self and others happens a few months after birth.

A person refers to reference groups through the group belief, attitudes or behaviors to influence our own belief, these reference groups set same level of aspiration. Cultural and socialization theory to help explain the influence that those around us have on our development of a broad scale.                                                                    




Review of the positive approach

What the positive approach speaks about in social phenomenon must use methods of the natural sciences, e.g. the scientific method, the one thing that a person can regard as concrete knowledge are things that can only be experienced through the 5 senses, in other words a person cannot know anything outside wat can be observed and measured.
Not being able to study thoughts and emotions completely limits what people of the positive approach would consider true science and knowledge in sociological research and doesn’t except the study of metaphysics which is trying to find answers to the questions like “what is there” and “what is it like”
John clock believed we were all born as (Tabula Rasa-Blank state). All knowledge is gained through experience, he believed were born knowing nothing. (Pluto and Aristotle) Pluto believed that truth lived in a world of ideas while Aristotle mind was focused in the ground.
The destruction in-between secondary and primary qualities explain the disagreement that all of us have about our perception outside the world, and this is because primary qualities are the physical objects themselves and secondary qualities cause a debate. Philosopher George Berkeley said “There’s just no such thing as matter, there can’t be, instead there is only perception”.

No free will, surroundings and environments determine our behavior, it is not concerned with internal thoughts and emotions just observation and experimentation from the idea that our behavior is conditioned and we all behave a certain way because of our environment.
Imitation is one of the most basic forms of social behavior begins with the understanding that there’s a difference between others and ourselves, A person refers to reference groups though the groups beliefs, attitudes to influence our own beliefs, these reference groups set the same level of aspiration
Classical and operant conditioning is associated with Dr. Pavlov’s experiment in which he would ring the bell so the dog knew it was time for dinner after a while he ran the bell and there wasn’t any food but the dog associated the bell with the food causing him to come anyway, BF Skinner put a rat in a box the rat eventually learnt that every time he knocked against the box food would come to him.
It’s a thinking system based on Emile Durkheim ideas which changes the perspective of the way we look at society on a big scale, It study’s every piece that makes up society and how those pieces work to keep society stable though society is heading to an equilibrium. E.g. Amazon, Local businesses have to find other means to cater to customers to restore the balance.
This focuses completely on institutions with very little care with regards to the importance of oneself, the individual is recognized but no real effect to society and unable to explain the change in social conflict.
Primarily focused on maintaining a balance in the society where no significant changes made and no conflict can rise, every part in society serves the purpose of helping one another in the best possible way. Emile Durkheim’s main question “what holds society together, and how can it remain relatively stable even as traditions disappear and customs change”.